Mărci poştale, proiecte de monede şi probe de bancnote din perioada Statului naţional-legionar (septembrie 1940-ianuarie 1941) / Romanian Stamps and Unknown Projects of Coins and Samples of Banknotes from the Period of the National-Legionary State (September 1940 - January 1941)
|Limba de redactare||română|
|Excerpt||The freedom of researching sine ira et studio all the periods of national history which were previously considered taboo, made possible the present study.
The author presents in the first part of the study, three post stamp issues, providing interesting information related to the legends of the stamps and on the domestic political context of the moment. Also, in the study is discussed the mythology created in the early '40 around some historical leaders of Romanian nation or of the legionary movement and used by this party in the political and ideological propaganda. The author offers some data for the stamp collectors, as for example, about the special stamp put on the envelopes, in the days when the post stamp issues were put into circulation.
In the second part of the study, the author discusses the three issues of King Michael I denomination of 250 lei, struck in 1940 - 1941". The first, prepared in December 1940, but never put into circulation, has on the reverse the portcullis and on the edge, the lettering "Totul pentru Ţară" ("Everything for the Country") and the portcullis, which were the device and the symbol of Garda de Fier party ("Iron Guard"). The coins were not put in circulation because the defeat of the Iron Guard rebellion at the end of January 1941 by general Ion Antonescu.
The second issue has on the edge the lettering "Totul pentru Ţară" ("Everything for the Country"), put into circulation in March 1941, after the abrogation of the National-Legionary State. It was withdrawn soon, just because the unacceptable political motto engraved on the edge.
The third put into circulation in June 1941 has on the edge the common Royal motto "Nihil sine Deo". This is for the first times when the device of the Romanian Royal House is engraved on the edge of a coin.
Also, the author studies six unknown monetary designs (# C), drawn by Gheorghe Stănescu, probably prepared for the November 8, 1940 celebration.
One that could be the project of the obverse (# CI) and the other five are the projects of reverses for different face values: "10 lei 1940", "20 lei 1940", "50 lei 1950", "100 lei 1940" (# C2 - # C6). At the analysis of figurative composition, we can notice the apparition of two new representations for the Romanian monetary semiotics. On the projects are represented the portcullis (the grate, which was the symbol of Iron Guard Party) and the chain.
Also, the author points out the importance of the solar symbol in the ideology of Legionary Movement. For this purpose, she has used some typical samples of the political literature of the party, illustrated with texts written by the ideological leaders of this movement and from legionary newspapers.
Also, the author emphasizes the typological relation among the six projects, from the point of view of the legend - "Romania" and "Regatul României" ("The Kingdom of Romania"), the last being seldom used in the coin issues -, and the figurative representations.
In the third part of the study, the author analyses the banknote issues (# B): "100 lei 1st.11.1940" (MBR 216 a/ # B1 , # B2), "500 lei 1st.11.1940" (MBR 254 a/ # B5), "500 lei 1st.11.1940" (MBR 255/ # B6, # B7), "1000 lei 1st.11.1940" (MBR 308/ # B8 - # B 11), "5000 lei 31th.03.1931" (MBR 325 a/ # B14, # B15), completing the standard catalogues with two unknown variants.
The first is a "500 lei 26th.05.1939" essay of banknote, having on the reverse, the double vignette overprint the two farmwives and the portcullis and the date 6th.09.1940 (# B3, # B4). The second is the essay of a bill of "1000 lei 1st.11.1940" banknote, with the same double vignette overprint on the obverse (# B12, # B13). The colour of the oval vignette of two farmwives is different from the usual colour, which is brown. In the case of the samples of "500 lei" the colour of the vignette is blue, and in the case of those of "1000 lei" it is chestnut-grey. The portcullis and the date 6th.09.1940 are overprinted in green colour, the symbolic colour of the Legionary Movement.
The banknotes issued on the 1st.11.1940 entered the circulation in March 1941, although they had been prepared for November 1940, as proved by the above-mentioned essays.
As a conclusion, the period of the National-Legionary State was blank from the point of view of the monetary issue. All of these: the essay of the "250 lei 1940" (MBR 113) coin, the projects of coins and the samples of banknotes which were not put into circulation are another proof of the failure of the politics of the Legionary Movement, once having reached the ruling.
The projects of coins presented in this study belonged to the Saint Georges Museum, and the samples of banknotes come from the Romanian National Bank Collection; all these items are now preserved at the Coin Room of the Romanian National History Museum.
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